Aggressive driving and its manifestations in relation to personality traits, other personality variables, situational context and possible preventive measures

Miroslava Horáková

Abstract

Aggressive driving is an important phenomenon today. Our study describes aggressive driving, its specific manifestation, and analyses possible causes and the main context. It´s shown that aggressive driving is a complicated construct with multifactorial causes and has a wide range of manifestations, from mild forms to road rage. The main point of aggressive driving is such driver´s behaviour, which threatens or restricts other road users and leads to risky situations. Lots of studies find as the main reason for aggressive driving the personality characteristics (sensation-seeking, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and irritability), the personality structure Big Five seems to be a good predictor seems. Other studies rate as the key causes the situational factors, like traffic congestion, anonymity on the roads, and time pressure. The multifactorial approach evaluates this phenomenon as the result of internal and external factors. The important influencing factors are social norms and driving culture in a country. In conclusion, we discuss possible preventive measures for minimization of aggressive driving behaviour that should be complex and effect as individuals (therapeutic programs for aggressive drivers, education in driving schools preventive campaigns) so external environment (changes in road environment with the goal of minimization the driving pressure).

https://doi.org/10.29364/epsy.435

(Fulltext in Czech)

Keywords

aggressiveness, aggressive driving, causes of aggressive driving, driving anger, preventive measures

Literature

Ābele, L., Haustein, S., Møller, M., & Zettler, I. (2020). Links between observed and self-reported driving anger, observed and self-reported aggressive driving, and personality traits. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 140. https://doi.org/….2020.105516

Alonso, F., Esteban, C., Montoro, L., & Serge, G. (2019). Conceptualization of aggressive driving behaviors through a Perception of aggressive driving scale (PAD). Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 60, 415 – 426. https://doi.org/….2018.10.032

Anitei, M., Chraif, M., Burtaverde, V., & Mihaila, V. (2014). The Big Five Personality Factors in the prediction of aggressive driving behavior among Romanian youngsters. International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Psychology, 2(1).

Arnett, J. J., Offer, D., & Fine, M. A. (1997). Reckless driving in adolescence: „State“ and „trait“ factors. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 29(1), 57–63. DOI: 10.1016/S0001–4575(97)87007–8

Arthur, Jr. W., & Graziano, W. G. (1996). The five-factor model, conscientiousness, and driving accident involvement. Journal of Personality, 64(3), 593–618. https://doi.org/…96.tb00523.x

Balogun, S. K., Shenge, N. A., & Oladipo, S. E. (2012). Psychosocial factors influencing aggressive driving among commercial and private automobile drivers in Lagos metropolis. The Social Science Journal, 49(1), 83–89. https://doi.org/….2011.07.004

Bartl, G., Assailly, J. P., Chatenet, F., Hatakka, M., Keskinen, E., & Willlmes-Lenz, G. (2002). EU-Project „Andrea“: Analysis of driver rehabilitation programmes. KfV.

BESIP. (2020). Roztočenou spirálu agresivity na silnicích chce zastavit kampaň „Agresivita zabíjí“. Dostupné z https://www.ibesip.cz/…cich-chce-za

Berg, G. C., Koresen, M., & Chorus, C. G. (2020). Does morality predict aggressive driving? A conceptual analysis and exploratory empirical investigation. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 74, 259–271. https://doi.org/….2020.08.017

Bernfield, A. J., Szlemko, J. W., & Bell, P. A. (2006). Driver personality and anthropomorphic attributions of vehicle personality relate reported aggressive driving tendencies. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(2), 247–258.

Bettencourt, B. A., Talley, A., Benjamin, A., J., & Valentine, J. (2006). Personality and aggressive behavior under provoking and neutral conditions: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 132(5), 757–777. https://doi.org/…09.132.5.751

Bogdan, S. R., Măirean, C., Havârneanu, C.-E. (2016). A meta-analysis of the association between anger and aggressive driving. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 42, 350–364. https://doi.org/….2016.05.009

Boyce, T. E. & Geller, E. S. (2002). An instrumented vehicle assessment of problem behavior and driving style: Do younger males really take more risks? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 34(1), 51–64. DOI: 10.1016/S0001–4575(00)00102–0

Brodsky, W., Olivieri, D. & Chekaluk, E. (2018). Music genre induced driver aggression: A case of media delinquency and risk-promoting popular culture. Music & Science, 1, 1–17. https://doi.org/…204317743118

Brodsky, W. (2002). The effects of music tempo on simulated driving performance and vehicular control. Transportation Research, Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 4, 219–241. DOI: 10.1016/S1369–8478(01)00025–0

Brunson, B. I., & Matthews, K. A. (1981). The Type A coronary-prone behavior pattern and reactions to uncontrollable stress: An analysis of performance strategies, affect, and attributions during failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 906–918. https://doi.org/…514.40.5.906

Bushman, B. J., Steffgen, G., Kerwin, T., Whitlock, T., & Weisenberger, J. M. (2018). „Don´t you know I own the road?“ The link between narcissism and aggressive driving. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 52, 14–20. https://doi.org/….2017.10.008

Caprara, G. V., Passerini, S., Pastorelli, C., Renzi, P., & Zelli, A. (1986). Instigating and measuring interpersonal aggression and hostility: A methodological contribution. Aggressive Behavior, 12, 237–247. DOI: 10.1002/1098–2337(1986)12:­4<237::AID-AB2480120402>­3.0.CO;2-U

Cattel, R. B., & Scheier, I. H. (1961). The meaning and measurement of neuroticism and anxiety. Ronald Press.

Constantinou, E., Panayiotou, G., Konstantinou, N., Loutsiou-Ladd, A., & Kapardis, A. (2016). Risky and aggressive driving in young adults: Personality matters. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(4), 1323–1331. https://doi.org/….2011.02.002

Dahlen, E. R., & White, R. P. (2006). The Big Five factors, sensation seeking, and driving anger in the prediction of unsafe driving. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(5), 903–915. https://doi.org/….2006.03.016

Dahlen, E. R., Edwards, B. D., Tubre, T., Zyphur, M. J., & Warren, C. R. (2011). Taking a look behind the wheel: An investigation into the personality predictors of aggressive driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 45, 1–9. https://doi.org/….2011.11.012

Davis, D. & Hayes, J. (2011). What Are the benefits of mindfulness? Psychotherapy, 48(2), https://doi.org/…037/a0022062.

Deffenbacher, J. L., Oetting, E. R., & Lynch, R. S. (1994). Development of a driving anger scale. Psychological Reports, 74(1), 83–91. https://doi.org/…1994.74.1.83

Deffenbacher, J. L., Oetting, E. R., Thwaites, G. A., Lynch, R. S., Baker, D. A., Stark, R. S., et al. (1996). State–trait anger theory and the utility of the Trait Anger Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 131–148.

Deffenbacher, J. L., Huff, M. E., Lynch, R. S., Oetting, E. R., & Salvatore, N. F. (2000). Characteristics and treatment of high-anger drivers. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(1), 5–17. https://doi.org/…-0167.47.1.5

Deffenbacher, J. L., Lynch, R. S., Oetting, E. R., & Yingling, D. A. (2001). Driving anger: Correlates and a test of state-trait theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(8), 1321–1331. DOI: 10.1016/S0191–8869(00)00226–9

Del Vechio, T., & O´Leary, K. D. (2004). Effectiveness of anger treatments for specific anger problems: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(1), 15–34. https://doi.org/….2003.09.006

Ersan, Ö., Üzümcüoğlu, Y., Azık, D, Fındık, G., Kaçan, B., Solmazer, G., Özkan, T., Lajunen, T., Öz, B., Pashkevich, A., Pashkevich, M., Danelli-Mylona, V., Georgogianni, V., Krasniqi, E. M., Krasniqi, M., Makris, E., Shubenkova, K., & Xheladini, G. (2020). Cross-cultural differences in driver aggression, aberrant, and positive driver behaviors, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 71, 88–97. https://doi.org/….2020.03.020

Fruhen, S. L., & Flin, R. (2015). Car driver attitudes, perceptions of social norms and aggressive driving behaviour towards cyclists. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 83, 162–170. https://doi.org/…p.2015.07.00

Gardi, C., Fazia,T., Stringa, B., Giommi, F. (2022). A short Mindfulness retreat can improve biological markers of stress and inflammation. Psychoneuroen­docrinology, 135. https://doi.org/….2021.105579

Găianu, P.-A., Giosan, C., & Sârbescu, P. (2020). From trait anger to aggressive violations in road traffic. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 70, 15–24. https://doi.org/….2020.02.006

Glass, D. C., Snyder, M. L., & Hollis, J. F. (1974). Time urgency and the Type A coronary-prone behavior pattern. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 4, 125–140. https://doi.org/…74.tb00663.x

Groot-Mesken, J. (2003). Personal versus situational factors in the elicitation of anger. WOV Institute for road safety research, University of Groningen. Dostupné z https://www.researchgate.net/…ion_of_anger#…

Gulian, E., Matthews, G., Glendon A. K., Davies, D. R., & Debney, M. (1990). The stress of driving: a diary. Work and Stress 4(1), 7–16. https://doi.org/…379008256960

Harris, P. B., & Houston, J. M. (2010). Recklessness in context: Individual and situational correlates to aggressive driving. Environment and Behavior, 42(1), 44–60. https://doi.org/…916508325234

Hennessy, D. A., & Wiesenthal, D. L. (1999). Traffic congestion, driver stress, and driver aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 25(6), 409–423. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098–2337(1999)25:­6<409::AID-AB2>3.0.CO;2–0

Herzberg, P., Y., (2009). Beyond „accident-proneness“: Using Five-Factor Model prototypes to predict driving behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 1096–1100. https://doi.org/….2009.08.008

Chhabra, R., Verma, S., & Challa, R. K. (2019). Detecting aggressive driving behavior using mobile smartphone. In Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Communication, Computing and Networking (pp. 513–521). Springer. https://doi.org/…13-1217-5_49

Iancu, A. E., Hogea, A., & Oltenanu, A. F. (2016). The association between personality and aggressive driving. Romanian Journal of Applied Psychology, 18(2), 24–32. http://www.rjap.psihologietm.ro/…jap182_1.pdf

Jahangiri, A., Berardi, V. J., & Machiani, S. G. (2017). Application of real field connected vehicle data for aggressive driving identification on horizontal curves. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 19(7), 2316–2324. https://doi.org/…2017.2768527

James, L., & Nahl, D. (2000). Aggressive driving is emotionally impaired driving. In Global Web Conference on Aggressive Driving, 16 – 23. 10. Canada: Ontario Ministry of Transportation.

James, L., & Nahl, D. (2002). Dealing with stress and pressure in the vehicle. Taxonomy of driving behavior: Affective, cognitive, sensorimotor. In Rothe, J. P. (Ed), Driving Lessons – Exploring Systems That Make Traffic Safer. University of Alberta Press. Dostupné z http://www.drdriving.org/…taxonomy.htm

Jovanovic, D., Lipovac, K., Stanojevic, P., & Stanojevic, D. (2011). The effects of personality traits on driving-related anger and aggressive behaviour in traffic among Serbian drivers. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 14(1), 43–53. https://doi.org/….2010.09.005

Kovaceva, J., Ieaksson-Hellman, I., & Murgowski, N. (2020). Identification of aggressive driving from naturalistic data in car-following situations. Journal of Safety Research, 73, 225–234. https://doi.org/….2020.03.003

Lajunen, T., Parker, D., & Summala, H. (1999). Does traffic congestion increase driver aggression? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2(4), 225–236. DOI: 10.1016/S1369–8478(00)00003–6

Lajunen, T., & Parker, D. (2001). Are aggressive people aggressive drivers? A study of the relationship between self-reported general aggressiveness, driver anger and aggressive driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 33(2), 243–255. DOI: 10.1016/S0001–4575(00)00039–7

Lennon, A. J., & Watson, B. C. (2015). A matter of style? Driver attributional „style“ in accounting for the driving of others as protective or as predisposing drivers towards retaliatory aggressive driving. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 20, 163–172. https://doi.org/….2015.03.001

Lisá, Z. (2011). Agresivita na silnicích aneb Proč se za volantem chováme jinak? Wolters Kluwer ČR.

Matović, B., Jovanović, D., Pljakić, M., & Stanojević, P. (2019). Driving anger and factors related to aggressive driving among Serbian drivers. Traffic Injury Prevention, 21(5), 319–323. https://doi.org/…2020.1758933

Matthews, G., Dorn, L., & Glendon, I. A. (1991). Personality correlates of driver stress. Personality and Individual Differences,12(6), s. 535–549. DOI: 10.1016/0191–8869(91)90248-A

Marengo, D., Settani, M., & Vidotto, G. (2012) Drivers´subtypes in a sample of Italian adolescents: Relation between personality measures and driving behaviors. Transportation Research Part F., 15(5), 480–490. https://doi.org/….2012.04.001

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81.

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (2006). Personality in adulthood: A five factor theory perspective. Guilford Press.

Miles, D. E., & Johnson, G. (2003). Aggressive driving behaviors: are there psychological and attitudinal predictors? Transportation Research Part 6(2), 147–161. DOI: 10.1016/S1369–8478(03)00022–6

Mizel, L., Matthew, J., & Connel, D. (1997). Aggressive Driving: Three Studies. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, Washington, DC. Dostupné z https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/40587

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Drugged Driving DrugFacts. Dostupné z https://www.drugabuse.gov/…gged-driving

NHTSA (1998). Aggressive drivers view traffic differently Capital Beltway focus groups find. US Department of Transportation Traffic Tech, 175. https://one.nhtsa.gov/…b/tt175.html

Observatoř bezpečnosti silničního provozu (2020). Agresivita na silnicích. Co s ní? Dostupné z https://www.czrso.cz/…ich-co-s-ni/?…

Özkan, T., & Lajunen, T. (2005). A new addition to DBQ: Positive Driver Behaviours Scale. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 8(4–5), 355–368. https://doi.org/….2005.04.018

Pantangi, S. S., Fountas, G., Anastasopoulos, P. Ch., Pierowicz, J., Majka, K., & Blatt, A. (2020). Do high visibility enforcement programs affect aggressive driving behavior? An empirical analysis using naturalistic driving study data. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 138. https://doi.org/….2019.105361

Parker, D., Lajunen, T., & Strandling, S. (1998). Attitudinal predictors of aggressive violations on the road. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology & Behaviour, 1F(1), 11–24. DOI: 10.1016/S1369–8478(98)00002–3

Parkinson, B. (2001). Anger on and off the road. British Journal of Psychology, 92(Pt 3), 507–526. https://doi.org/…712601162310

Policie ČR. Statistiky nehodovosti. Dostupné z https://www.policie.cz/…-900835.aspx?…

Renner, W., & Anderle, F. G. (2000). Venturesomeness and extraversion as correlates of juvenile drivers traffic violations. Accident, Analysis and Prevention, 32(5), 673–678. DOI: 10.1016/S0001–4575(99)00103–7

Rolls, G. W. P., Ingham, R., Hall, R. D., & McDonald, M. (1991). Accident risk and the behavioural patterns of younger drivers. AA Foundation for Road Safety Research, Basingstoke.

Rosenman, R. H. (1978). The interview method of assessment of the coronary-prone behavior pattern. In T. M. Dembroski, S. M. Weiss, J. L. Shields, S. G. Haynes, & M. Feinleib (Eds.), Coronary-prone behavior (pp. 55–69). Springer.

Shaw, D. J., Czekóová, K., Špiláková, B., Salazar, M., Řezáč, P., Kurečková, V., Zámečník, P., & Brázdil, M. (2020). A neuroscientific evaluation of driver rehabilitation: Functional neuroimaging demonstrates the effectiveness of empathy induction in altering brain responses during social information processing. PLOS ONE 15(4): e0232222. https://doi.org/…pone.0232222

Shinar, D. (1998). Aggressive driving: The contribution of drivers and the situation. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 1(2), 137–160. DOI: 10.1016/S1369–8478(99)00002–9

Shinar, D., & Compton, R. (2004). Aggressive driving: an observational study of driver, vehicle, and situational variables. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 36(3), 429–437. DOI: 10.1016/S0001–4575(03)00037-X

Spielberger, C. D. (1988). State-trait anger expression inventory: Professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources. https://doi.org/…6.corpsy0942

Stephens, A. N., Koppel, S., Young, K., Chambers, R., & Hassed, C. (2018). Associations between self-reported mindfulness, driving anger and aggressive driving. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 56, 149–155. https://doi.org/….2018.04.011

Ministerstvo dopravy. (2020). Strategie BESIP 2021–2030. Dostupné z https://www.czrso.cz/…021-2030.pdf

Šucha, M. (2009). Agresivita na cestách. Univerzita Palackého v Olomouci.

Šucha, M., Šrámková, L., Zámečník, P., Černochová, D., & Rehnová, V. (2016). Řidiči podstupující dopravněpsycho­logické vyšetření v ČR. Psychologie pro praxi, 51, 46–62.

Taubman-Ben-Ari, O. & Yehiel, D. (2011). Driving styles and their associations with personality and motivation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 45, 416–422. https://doi.org/….2011.08.007

Thørrisen, M. M. (2013). The role of extraversion and neuroticism in drivers´ behavior towards bicyclists [Master thesis in health- and social psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Oslo]. https://doi.org/….22377.44647

TIRF. Young and New Driver Resource Centre. (2014). Aggressive driving. Dostupné z https://yndrc.tirf.ca/…_driving.php

Ulleberg, P. (2004). Aggressive driving – a literature review. Oslo: Institute of Transport Economics. Dostupné z https://www.toi.no/…2004-Sum.pdf

Unal, A. B., de Waard, D., Epstude, K., & Steg, L. (2013). Driving with music: Effects on arousal and performance. Transportation Research, Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 21, 52–65. https://doi.org/….2013.09.004

Üzümcüoğlu, Y., Özkan, T., Wu, Ch., & Zhang, H. (2019). How drivers perceive traffic? How they behave in traffic of Turkey and China? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 64, 463–471. https://doi.org/….2019.06.006.

Vyhláška č. 31/2001 Sb., Vyhláška Ministerstva dopravy a spojů o řidičských průkazech a o registru řidičů, zejména § 18a a § 18c. Dostupná na https://www.zakonyprolidi.cz/cs/2001-31

Wallén, W. H. H, Özkan T, Lajunen T. (2009). Cross-cultural differences in drivers' speed choice. Accid Anal Prev., 41(4). 816–9. https://doi.org/….2009.04.004.

Yu, J., Evans, P. Ch., & Perfetti, L. (2004). Road aggression among drinking drivers: Alcohol and non-alcohol effects on aggressive driving and road rage. Journal of Criminal Justice, 32(5), 421–430. https://doi.org/….2004.06.004

Zákon č. 361/2000 Sb. o provozu na pozemních komunikacích a o změnách některých zákonů, zejména §§ 87a až 87c. Dostupný na https://www.zakonyprolidi.cz/cs/2000-361

Zámečník, P. (2011). Agresivní kultura řidičů. [Diplomová práce. Fakulta sociálních studií, Masarykova univerzita].

Zámečník, P., Kurečková, V., Řezáč, P., Havlíčková, D., Shaw, D., Czekóová, K., Špiláková, B., & Salazar, M. (2018). Rehabilitační programy pro řidiče. Centrum dopravního výzkumu.

Zhang, H. Qu, W., Ge, Y., Sun, X., & Zhang, K. (2017). Effect of personality traits, age and sex on aggressive driving: Psychometric adaptation of the Driver Aggression Indicator Scale in China. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 103, 29–36. https://doi.org/….2017.03.016

Zuckerman, M., Kuhlman, D. M., Joireman, J., Teta, P., & Kraft, M. (1993). A comparison of three structural models for personality: The Big Three, the Big Five, and the Alternative Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 757.

Show all Hide