Individuálne faktory a faktory morálneho self ako predpoklady porušovania noriem v akademickej sfére

Radka Čopková, Františka Semanová, Janka Wencelová

Abstrakt

Výskumná štúdia nadväzuje na výskum zaoberajúci sa identifikáciou signifikantných prediktorov neetického správania uskutočneného za účelom dosiahnutia cieľa (Čopková, Matyiová, & Bartko, 2017). Cieľom prezentovanej štúdie bola analýza komplexných vzťahov pravdepodobnosti sformovania zámeru porušiť normu v akademickej oblasti za účelom dosiahnutia cieľa a premenných predstavujúcich jeho potenciálne predpoklady. Analyzované boli dáta od vzorky 154 vysokoškolských študentov vo veku od 18 do 25 rokov (Mvek = 21,57, SD = 1,76), 80,5 % tvorili ženy; 19,5 % muži. Analýzou komplexných vzťahov prostred-níctvom modelovania štrukturálnymi rovnicami bol preukázaný priamy pozitívny efekt personálneho normatívneho presvedčenia, nepriamy negatívny efekt svedomitosti a nepriame pozitívne efekty machiavelizmu, morálnych výpadkov pri akademickom podvádzaní a sebaoprávňovania v dosahovaní cieľa na pravdepodobnosť sformovania zámeru porušiť normu za účelom dosiahnutia cieľa.

https://doi.org/10.29364/epsy.364

Klíčová slova

záměr porušit normu, morální identita, svědomitost, machiavellismus, normativní přesvědčení, sebelicencování, morální uvolnění

Literatura

Ali, F., Amorim, S., Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2009). Empathy deficits and trait emotional intelligence in psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 758–762. https://doi.org/….2009.06.016

Aquino, K. F., & Reed, A. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(6), 1423–1440. https://doi.org/…14.83.6.1423

Aquino, K. F., Reed, A., Thau, S., & Freeman, D. (2007). A grotesque and dark beauty: how moral identity and mechanism of moral disengagement influence cognitive and emotional reactions to war. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 385–392. https://doi.org/….2006.05.013

Arbuckle, J. L. (2011). IBM SPSS Amos TM 20 Users Guide. Chicago, IL: AMOS Development Corporation.

Babinčák, P., & Ráczová, B. (2009). Základy psychológie morálky. Vzdelávací program pre výučbu psychológie morálky, Košice: Univerzita Pavla Jozefa Šafárika v Košiciach. Dostupné z: http://www.ff.unipo.sk/…wnload/4.pdf.

Bandura, A. (1990). Selective activation and disengagement of moral control. Journal of Social Issues, 46(1), 27–46. https://doi.org/…90.tb00270.x

Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(2), 364. https://doi.org/…514.71.2.364

Baumeister, R. F. (2002). Ego depletion and self-control failure: An energy model of the self’s executive function. Self & Identity, 1(2), 129–136. https://doi.org/…602317319302

Bartley, C. E., & Roesch, S. C. (2011). Coping with daily stress: The role of conscientiousness. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 79–83. https://doi.org/….2010.08.027

Blasi, A. (1984). Moral identity: Its role in moral functioning. In W. Kurtines & J. Gewirtz (Eds.), Morality, moral behavior and moral development (pp. 128–139). New York: Wiley.

Bloodgood, J. M., Turnley, W. H. & Mudrack, P. E. (2010). Ethics instruction and the perceived acceptability of cheating. Journal of Business Ethics. 95(1), 23–37. https://doi.org/…1-009-0345-0

Camacho, C. J., Higgins, E. T., & Luger, L. (2003). Moral value transfer from regulatory fit: what feels right is right and what feels wrong is wrong. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 498. https://doi.org/…514.84.3.498

Carver, C., & Scheier, M. (1990). Principles of self-regulation: Action and emotion. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: Vol. 2. Foundations of social behavior (pp. 3–52). New York: Guilford Press.

Cascio, J., & Plant, E. A. (2015). Prospective moral licensing: Does anticipating doing good later allow you to be bad now? Journal Of Experimental Social Psychology, 56, 110–116. https://doi.org/….2014.09.009

Cialdini, R. B., & Trost, M. R. (1998). Social influence: Social norms, conformity, and compliance. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 151– 192). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Conrad, N., & Patry, M. W. (2012). Conscientiousness and academic performance: A mediational analysis. Statesboro, Georgia: Center for Teaching, Learning, & Scholarship at Georgia Southern University. https://doi.org/….2012.060108

Czibor, A., & Bereczkei, T. (2012). Machiavellian people’s success results from monitoring their partners. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 202–206. https://doi.org/….2012.03.005

Dahling, J. J., Whitaker, B. G., & Levy, P. E. (2008). The development and validation of a new Machiavellianism scale. Journal of Management, 35(2), 219–257. https://doi.org/…206308318618

Čopková, R. (2017). Procesy morálnej sebaregulácie v dosahovaní cieľov. In L. Lovaš & B. Ráczová a kol., Procesy sebaregulácie v dosahovaní cieľov (s. 144–170). Košice: Univerzita Pavla Jozefa Šafárika v Košiciach.

Čopková, R., Matyiová, N., & Bartko, M. (2017). Prediktory porušovania noriem v správaní orientovanom na cieľ. E-psychologie, 11(1), 30–43. http://e-psycholog.eu/…ova_etal.pdf

Čopková, R. & Lovaš, L. (2016). Normative beliefs related to norm-violating behavior in the context of goal attainment. In Motivation and social perception: Conference, Gdańsk, 19. – 21. 7. 2016. Gdańsk: Univwersytet Gdański, p. 38.

Čopková, R. & Matyiová, N. (2016). Narcistická sebaregulácia v na cieľ orientovanom správaní. Prohuman, 8(7), 1–9. Dostupné z https://www.prohuman.sk/…nom-spravani

Čopková, R. (2016). Sebalicencovanie v na cieľ orientovanom správaní. In K. Millová, A. Slezáčková, P. Humpolíček, & M. Svoboda (eds.), Sociální procesy a osobnost 2015: Otázky a výzvy. Sborník příspěvků. Brno, 9. – 11. září 2015. Brno: Masarykova univerzita.

Effron, D. A., & Miller, D. T. (2015). Do as I say, not as I’ve done: Suffering for a misdeed reduces the hypocrisy of advising others against it. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 131, 16–32. https://doi.org/….2015.07.004

Fishbach, A. & Dhar, R. (2005). Goals as excuses or guides: The liberating effect of perceived goal progress on choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(3), 370–377. https://doi.org/10.1086/497548

Gino, F., Ayal, S., & Ariely, D. (2009). Contagion and differentiation in unethical behavior: The effect of one bad apple on the barrel. Psychological Science, 20, 393–398. https://doi.org/…2009.02306.x

Green, S. P. (2002). Plagiarism, norms, and the limits of theft law: Some observations on the use of criminal sanctions in enforcing intellectual property rights. Hastings Law Journal 54, 167–242. Dostupné z: https://repository.uchastings.edu/…vol54/iss1/3

Green, R. M. (1991). When is “everyone's doing it a moral justification? Business Ethics Quarterly, 1(1), 75–93. https://doi.org/10.2307/3857593

Gunnthorsdottir, A., Mccabe, K., & Smith, V. (2002). Using the Machiavellianism instrument to predict trustworthiness in a bargaining game. Journal of Economic Psychology, 23, 49– 66. doi: 10.1016/S0167–4870(01)00067–8

Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340. https://doi.org/…5X/87/S00.75

Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Strack, F. (2009). Impulse and self-control from a dual-systems perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(2), 162–176. https://doi.org/…2009.01116.x

Hogan, J., & Ones, D. S. (1997). Conscientiousness and integrity at work. In R. Hogan, J. Johnson, & S. Briggs (1997). Handbook of Personality Psychology. San Diego: Academic Press. https://doi.org/…45-4/50033-0

Huesmann, L. R. (1988). An information processing model for the development of aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 14(1), 13–24. https://doi.org/…02/1098-2337(1988)14:1<13::AID-AB2480140104>­3.0.CO;2-J

Chapman K. J., Davis, R., Toy, D., & Wright, L. (2004). Academic integrity in the business school environment: I’ll get by with a little help from my friends. Journal of Marketing Education, 26. https://doi.org/…475304268779

Cheryan, S., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2000). When positive stereotypes threaten intellectual performance: The psychological hazards of model minority status. Psychological Science, 11, 399–402. https://doi.org/…7-9280.00277

Christie, R., & Geis, F.L. (1970). Studies in Machiavellianism. New York: Academic Press.

John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five Trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 102–138). New York: Guilford Press.

Jordan, A. E. (2003). Implications of academic dishonesty for teaching in psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 30(3), 216–219. https://doi.org/…23TOP3003_03

Kačmár, P., & Lovaš, L. (2018). Neuvedomovaná aktivácia cieľov v širšej perspektíve sociálneho primingu. Československá psychologie, 62(1), 75–91.

Khan, U. & Dhar, R. (2006). Licensing effect in consumer choice. Journal of Marketing Research, 63, 259–266. https://doi.org/…mkr.43.2.259

Kline, R. B. (2011). Convergence of structural equation modeling and multilevel modeling. In M. Williams, & W. P. Vogt (Eds.), Handbook of methodological innovation (pp. 562–589) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. https://dx.doi.org/…46268261.n31

Lovaš, L. (1998a). K otázke typov sociálnych noriem: sociálne normy a implicitné teórie sociálnych noriem (náčrt prístupu). Perspektívy výskumu sociálnych noriem. Košice: SVÚ SAV, 1998b, 13–17.

Lovaš, L. (1998b). Súčasné pohľady na vplyv sociálnych noriem na ľudské správanie v sociálnej psychológii. Človek a spoločnosť, 2(1), 2–98. Dostupné z: http://www.clovekaspolocnost.sk/jquery/pdf.php?…

Mazar, N., Amir, O., & Ariely, D., (2008). The dishonesty of honest people: A theory of self- concept maintenance. Journal of Marketing Research, 45, 633–644. https://doi.org/…mkr.45.6.633

McCabe, D. L., Treviňo, L. K. & Butterfield, K. D. (1999) Academic integrity in honor code and non-honor code environments: a qualitative investigation. Journal of Higher Education, 70(2), 211–234. https://doi.org/…999.11780762

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81–90. https://doi.org/…3514.52.1.81

McCabe, D. L. & Trevino L.K. (1993). Academic dishonesty: Honor codes and other contextual influences. The Journal of Higher Education, 64, 522–538. https://doi.org/…993.11778446

Miller, D. T., & Effron, D. A. (2010). Psychological license: when it is needed and how it functions. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 115–155. https://doi.org/…6/S0065-2601(10)43003–8

Monin, B., & Jordan, A. H. (2009). Dynamic moral identity: A social psychological perspective. In D. Narvaez & D. Lapsley (Eds.), Moral self, identity and character: Prospects for a new field of study (pp. 341–354). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mulder, L. B., & Aquino, K. (2013). The role of moral identity in the aftermath of dishonesty. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 121(2), 219–230. https://doi.org/….2013.03.005

Nisan, M. (1991). The moral balance model: Theory and research extending our understanding of choice and deviation. In W. M. Kurtines & J. L. Gerwitz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development (Vol. 3, pp. 213–249). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS survival guide. Crow's Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Park, C. (2003). In other (people's) words: Plagiarism by university students-literature and lessons. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 28(5), 471–488. https://doi.org/…602930301677

Polman, E., & Khan, U. (2011). Interpersonal Implications of Self-Licensing. Advances in Consumer Research, 39, 82–83. Dostupné z: https://www.acrwebsite.org/…es/v39/NA-39

Reed II, A., & Aquino, K. F. (2003). Moral identity and the expanding circle of moral regard toward out-groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(6), 1270. https://doi.org/…14.84.6.1270

Reeves, D. L. (2016). Moral licensing and cleansing theory: A study in decision-making, morality and interaction. Doctoral dissertation. Canberra: The Australian National University. https://doi.org/…d78d5c5a20b1

Rovenská, D. (2016). Organizačná spravodlivosť – teoretické koncepty a výskumné zistenia. Ľudský kapitál a spoločnosť 2016: zborník príspevkov z medzinárodnej vedeckej konferencie. Košice: Univerzita Pavla Jozefa Šafárika v Košiciach, 173–179.

Ruisel, I., & Halama, P. (2007). NEO päťfaktorový osobnostný inventár (podľa NEO Five- Factor Inventory P.T. Costu a R.R. McCraeho). S. 45. Praha: Testcentrum – Hogrefe.

Sariasih, W. & Tisnawijaya, Ch. (2019). Academic dishonesty: How students do the learning assessment and project. Sixth of International Conference on English Language and Teaching (ICOELT 2018). Atlantis Press. https://doi.org/…t-18.2019.20

Shu, L. L., Gino, F., & Bazerman, M. H. (2011). Dishonest deed, clear conscience: When cheating leads to moral disengagement and motivated forgetting, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 330–349. https://doi.org/…167211398138

Steele, C. M. (1999). The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Key readings in social psychology. The self in social psychology (p. 372–390). New York: Psychology Press.

Snyder, M., & Ickes, W. (1985). Personality and social behavior. In G. Lindzey & A. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology. Vol. 2, pp. 883–947. New York: Random House.

Suhr, D. (2006). The basics of structural equation modeling. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?…

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Van Kleef, G. A., Wanders, F., Stamkou, E., & Homan, A. C. (2015). The social dynamics of breaking the rules: antecedents and consequences of norm-violating behavior. Current Opinion in Psychology, 6, 25–31. https://doi.org/…15.03.013Get rights and content

Vitell, S. J., Keith, M., & Mathur, M. (2011). Antecedents to the justification of norm violating behavior among business practitioners. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(1), 163–173. https://doi.org/…1-010-0717-5

Wilson, D. S., & O’Gorman, R. (2003). Emotions and actions associated with norm-breaking events. Human Nature, 14(3), 277–304. doi: 1045–6767/03/$1.00+.10

Winter, S. J., Stylianou, A. C., & Giacalone, R. A. (2004). Individual differences in the acceptability of unethical information technology practices: The case of Machiavellianism and ethical ideology. Journal of Business Ethics, 54, 279–301. https://doi.org/…1-004-1772-6

Wirtz, J., & Kum, D. (2004). Consumer cheating on service guarantees. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32, 159–175. https://doi.org/…070303261416

Witt Huberts, J. C., Evers, C., & De Ridder, D. T. (2012). License to sin: self-licensing as a mechanism underlying hedonic consumption. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42(4), 490–496. https://doi.org/…002/ejsp.861

Zákon č. 185/2015 Z. z. Autorský zákon v znení zákona č. 125/2016 Z. z. (2016). https://www.zakonypreludi.sk/zz/2015-185

Zobrazit celé Skrýt