Osobnostní rozvoj při zotavování se ze závislosti na omamných látkách

Alena Olivová, Alena Slezáčková

Abstrakt

Mnohé se ví o negativních dopadech závislostí na kvalitu života – ať jde o dopady ve fyzické či psychosociální rovině. Na pozadí se však mohou odehrávat důležité transformativní změny osobnosti, kterým by měla být věnována stejně tak významná část pozornosti. Tato přehledová studie nabízí souhrn dosavadních poznatků, které se zaměřují na aspekty osobnostního rozvoje následujícího po období aktivního užívání a závislosti na návykových látkách. Popisuje a integruje výsledky z devíti empirických studií – jediných, které v kontextu adiktologie zmiňují osobnostní rozvoj a splňují kritéria výběru. Tyto studie jsou dále diskutovány, je poukazováno jak na nejednotné přístupy ve volbě výchozích teoretických konceptů a jejich výzkumných designů, tak na různorodost výzkumných souborů, například co do typu omamné látky, na které u respondenta vznikla závislost, tak co do množství prodělaných recidiv a léčeb či způsobu léčby. Z přehledu citovaných studií vyplývá, že význam zotavování ze závislosti jde mnohem dále, než je pouhá abstinence. Na případné profitování ze závislosti výzkumníci v současné době nahlížejí z různých výchozích pozic, shodují se však v mnohých závěrech, jako je například důležitost sociální opory, vnímání procesu zotavení jako příležitosti k novému životu či zesílení pociťovaného smyslu života. Studie upozorňuje na důležitou a doposud málo prozkoumanou oblast práce s adiktologickou klientelou, která v praxi může přispět ke stabilitě v procesu zotavování ze závislosti, zvýšení kvality života a k osobnostnímu rozvoji.

https://doi.org/10.29364/epsy.393

Klíčová slova

osobnostní rozvoj, závislost, omamné látky, zotavování

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