Reading books in relation to verbal and figural creativity of adolescents

Nika Konrádyová, Miriam Slavkovská


The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of prospective differences in factors of verbal and figural creativity, like fluency, flexibility and elaboration, between pupils who read books in their free time and those who do not read. The next aim was to determine the extent of influence of reading in free time on verbal and figural creativity. Totally 169 pupils from elementary schools participated in this research. Number of those who read in their free time was 63 (37,28%). In the group there were totally 89 (52,66%) boys and 80 (47,33%) girls. Participants ranged in age from 10 to 15 years (M= 13,08; SD= 0,82). Data were collected with using Torrance Test of Creative Thinking – figural part and some adapted tasks from tests of verbal creativity from Guilford and Torrance. The results show that there are significant differences between readers and non-readers in verbal and figural creativity. Differences were also demonstrated in the most factors of creativity, the only exception was figural fluency. Further analysis of data showed more significant influence of reading on score in verbal than in figural creativity, where the influence is negligible.

(Fulltext in Slovak)


creativity, reading, pupils


Clark, C., & Foster, A. (2005). Children's and Young People's Reading Habits and Preferences: The Who, What, Why, Where and When. National Literacy Trust.…

Čavojová, V., & Danišková, K. (2008). Tvorivosť – cesta k rozvoju osobnosti. Nitra: Univerzita Konštantína Filozofa, Fakulta sociálnych vied a zdravotníctva.

Dău-Gaşpar, O. (2013). Verbal and figural creativity in contemporary high-school students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 78, 662–666.….2013.04.371

De Naeghel, J., Valcke, M., DeMeyer, I., Warlop, N., Van Braak, J., & Van Keer, H. (2014). The role of teacher behavior in adolescents’ intrinsic reading motivation. Reading and Writing, 27(9), 1547–1565.…5-014-9506-3

Hlavsa, J. & Jurčová, M. (1978). Psychologické metódy zisťovania tvorivosti. Bratislava: Psychodiagnostické a didaktické testy.

Howard, V. (2011). The importance of pleasure reading in the lives of young teens: Self-identification, self-construction and self-awareness. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, 43(1), 46–55.…000610390992

Jennifer, J. M., & Ponniah, R. J. (2015). Pleasure reading cures readicide and facilitates academic reading. i-Manager's Journal on English Language Teaching, 5(4), 1–5.…

Jurčová, M. (1984). Torranceho figurálny test tvorivého myslenia, forma B. Všeobecná a praktická časť. Bratislava: Psychodiagnostické a didaktické testy. Jurčová, M. (2009). Tvorivosť v každodennom živote a vo výskume. Bratislava: Iris.

Karwowski, M., Dul, J., Gralewski, J., Jauk, E., Jankowska, D. M., Gajda, A., Chruszczewsky, M. H., & Benedek, M. (2016). Is creativity without intelligence possible? A necessary condition analysis. Intelligence, 57, 105–117.….2016.04.006

Kharkhurin, A. V. (2014). Creativity. 4in1: Four-criterion construct of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 26(3), 338–352.….2014.929424

McGeown, S. P., Duncan, L. G., Griffiths, Y. M., & Stothard, S. E. (2015). Exploring the relationship between adolescent’s re­ading skills, reading motivation and reading habits. Reading and Writing, 28(4), 545–569.…5-014-9537-9

McKool, S. S. (2007). Factors that influence the decision to read: An investigation of fifth grade student´s out- of- school reading habits. Reading Improvement, 44, 111–131.

Morgan, P. L. & Fuchs, D. (2007). Is there a bidirectional relationship between children's reading skills and reading motivation? Exceptional children, 73(2), 165–183.…290707300203

Morni, A., & Sahari, S. H. (2013). The impact of living environment on reading attitudes. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 101, 415–425.….2013.07.215

Paige, D. D. (2011). Engaging struggling adolescent readers through situational interest: A model proposing the relationships among extrinsic motivation, oral reading proficiency, comprehension, and academic achievement. Reading Psychology, 32(5), 395–425.….2010.495633

Pečjak, S. & Košir, K. (2008). Reading motivation and reading efficiency in third and seventh grade pupils in relation to teacher´s acti­vities in the classroom. Studia Psychologica, 50(2), 147–168.….147-168.pdf

Plucker, J., & Zabelina, D. (2009). Creativity and interdiscipli­narity: one creativity or many creativities? ZDM Mathematics Education, 41(1–2), 5–11.…8-008-0155-3

Ritchie, S. J., Luciano, M., Hansell, N. K., Wright, M. J., & Bates, T. C. (2013). The relationship of reading ability to creativity: Positive, not negative associations. Learning and Individual Differences, 26, 171–176.….2013.02.009

Sternberg, R. J. (2002). Kognitivní psychologie. Praha: Portál.

Szobiová, E. (2016). Tvorivosť – poznávanie tajomstiev. Plzeň: Vydavatelství a nakladatelství Aleš Čeněk.

Vosslamber, A. (2002). Gifted readers: Who are they, and how can they be served in the classroom? Gifted Child Today, 25(2), 14–20.…/gct-2002-55

Wang, A. Y. (2012). Exploring the relationship of creative thinking to reading and writing. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 7(1), 38–47.….2011.09.001

Wigfield, A., Guthrie, J. T., Tonks, S., & Perencevich, K. C. (2004). Children's mo­tivation for reading: Domain specificity and instructional influences. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(6), 299–310.…97.6.299-310

Wilson, J. D. & Casey, L. H. (2007). Understanding the recreational reading patterns of secondary students. Reading Improvement, 44(1), 40–49.

Wollscheid, S. (2014). The impact of the leisure reading behaviours of both parents on children's reading behaviour: Investigating differences between sons and daughters. Poetics, 45, 36–54.….2014.06.001

Show all Hide