Alcohol use, alcohol refusal skills and their association with expected consequences of alcohol use and accessibility of alcohol among schoolchildren
The study aimed to explore the relationship between alcohol use, alcohol refusal skills, accessibility of alcohol, and expected consequences of alcohol use. The research sample consisted of 572 adolescents from 12 primary schools in Slovakia (50.1% boys, mean age = 12.49; SD = 0.59) based on stratified random sampling. Binary logistic regressions and mediation analyses were used for the analysis and were carried out separately for boys and girls. The models for boys and girls were found to be significant (chi square 35.57, p < .001; R2 = 12.9 – 17.4, chi square, 81.54, p < .001; R2 = 27, 8 – 37.1). For boys, alcohol use was significantly negatively associated with alcohol refusal skills and positively with the availability of alcohol. For girls, alcohol use was significantly negatively associated with alcohol refusal skills, and negative expectations were found. Positive relationships with positive expectations and alcohol availability were also confirmed. In the sample of girls, both negative and positive expectations in the relationship between alcohol use and the availability of alcohol were confirmed as mediators of these relationships.
(Fulltext in Slovak)
Keywordsalcohol use, accessibility of alcohol, alcohol refusal skills, expectations of positive and negative consequences of alcohol use
Aryal, U. R., Petzold, M,. & Krettek, A. (2013). Perceived risks and benefits of cigarette smoking among Nepalese adolescents: A population-based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 13, 187. https://doi.org/…-2458-13-187
Bandura, A. (1986). From thought to action: Mechanisms of personal agency. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 15, 1–17.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. https://doi.org/…188.8.131.523
Baška, T., Madarasová-Gecková, A., Bašková, M., & Krajčovič, A. (2016). Decline in alcohol use among adolescents in Slovakia: A reason for optimism? Public Health, 139, 203–208. https://doi.org/….2016.08.003
Bekman, N. M., Goldman, M. S., Worley, M. J., & Anderson, K. G. (2011). Pre-adolescent alcohol expectancies: Critical shifts and associated maturational processes. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 19(6), 420–432. https://doi.org/…037/a0025373
Botvin, G. J., & Griffin, K. W. (2015). Life Skills Training: A competence enhancement approach to tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse prevention. In L. M. Scheier (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent drug use prevention: Research, intervention strategies, and practice (p. 177–196). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/…37/14550-011
Cook, W. K., Bond, J., & Greenfield, T. K. (2014). Are alcohol policies associated with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries? Addiction, 109(7), 1081–1090. https://doi.org/…11/add.12571
Copeland, A. L., Proctor, S. L., Terlecki, M. A., Kulesza, M., & Williamson, D. A. (2014). Do positive alcohol expectancies have a critical developmental period in pre-adolescents? Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 75(6), 945–952. https://doi.org/….2014.75.945
Cuijpers P. (2002). Effective ingredients of school-based drug prevention programs. A systematic review. Addictive Behaviors, 27(6),1009–1023. https://doi.org/…6/s0306-4603(02)00295–2
Donovan, J. E. (2007). Really underage drinkers: the epidemiology of children's alcohol use in the United States. Prevention science, 8(3), 192–205. https://doi.org/…1-007-0072-7
Donovan, J. E., Molina, B. S. G., & Kelly, T. M. (2009). Alcohol outcome expectancies as socially shared and socialized beliefs. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23(2), 248–259. https://doi.org/…037/a0015061
ESPAD Group (2016). ESPAD Report 2015: Results from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. https://doi.org/10.2810/022073
Gajdošová, B., Orosová, O., Janovská, A, & Berinšterová, M. (2017). Factors of lifetime prevalence of alcohol use among early adolescents boys and girls. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends : Book of Abstracts : 29 April – 1 May 2017, Budapest, Hungary. 58. WIARS.
Gajdošová, B., Orosová, O., & Stefaňáková, M. (2018). Accessibility of alcohol, alcohol refusal skills and lifetime alcohol use among early adolescents. European Journal of Public 28(4), 355 –355. https://doi.org/…b/cky214.133
Gunn R. L., & Smith, G. T. (2010). Risk factors for elementary school drinking: Pubertal status, personality, and alcohol expectancies concurrently predict fifth grade alcohol consumption. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24(4), 617–627. https://doi.org/…037/a0020334
Hibell, B., Guttormsson, U., Ahlström, S., Balakireva, O., Bjarnason, T., Kokkevi, A., & Kraus, L. (2012). The 2011 ESPAD Report: Substance use among students in 36 European countries. Modintryckoffset AB. http://www.espad.org/…12_10_29.pdf
Choi, H. J., Krieger, J. L., & Hecht, M. L. (2013). Reconceptualizing efficacy in substance use prevention research: Refusal response efficacy and drug resistance self-efficacy in adolescent substance use. Health Communication, 28(1), 40–52. https://doi.org/….2012.720245
Jernigan, D., Noel, J., Landon, J., Thornton. N., & Lobstein. T. (2017). Alcohol marketing and youth alcohol consumption: A systematic review of longitudinal studies published since 2008. Addiction. 112 Suppl 1, 7–20. https://doi.org/…11/add.13591
Jones, S. C., & Gordon, C. S. (2017). A systematic review of children's alcohol-related knowledge, attitudes and expectancies. Preventive Medicine, 105, 19–31. https://doi.org/….2017.08.005
Kraus, L., Seitz, N. N., Piontek, D., Molinaro, S., Siciliano, V., Guttormsson, U., & Griffiths, P. (2018). Are The Times A‐Changin’? Trends in adolescent substance use in Europe. Addiction, 113(7), 1317–1332. https://doi.org/…11/add.14201.
Macaulay, A. P., Griffin, K.W., & Botvin, G. J. (2002). Initial internal reliability and descriptive statistics for a brief assessment tool for the Life Skills Training drug-abuse prevention program. Psychological Report, 91(2), 459–482. https://doi.org/…002.91.2.459
Ochaba, R. (2016). Regulácia predaja a užívania alkoholických nápojov na Slovensku. Verejné zdravotníctvo, 12(1), 1–60. http://verejnezdravotnictvo.szu.sk.
Orosová, O., Janovská, A., Kopuničová, V., & Vaňová, M. (2012). Základy prevencie užívania drog a problematického používania internetu v školskej praxi. Univerzita Pavla Jozefa Šafárika v Košiciach.
Prins, J. C., Donovan, J. E., & Molina, B. S. (2011). Parent-child divergence in the development of alcohol use norms from middle childhood into middle adolescence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72(3), 438–443. https://doi.org/….2011.72.438
Rehorčíková, V., Nemčovská, E., Sklenárová, Z., Kállay, A., Kállayová, D., Bražinová, A., & Slaná, M. (2013). Impact of family level factors on alcohol drinking in primary school children. Central European Journal of Public Health, 21(4), 202–206. https://doi.org/…/cejph.a3913
Roohafza, H., Omidi, R., Alinia, T., Heidari, K., Mohammad-Shafiee, G., Jaberifar, M., Sadeghi, M., & Maziak, W.(2018). Factors associated with smoking contemplation and maintenance among Iranian adolescents. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 24(8), 714–721. https://doi.org/…018.24.8.714
Sayette, M. A. (2017). The effects of alcohol on emotion in social drinkers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 88, 76–89. https://doi.org/….2016.06.005
Smith, G. T. & Cyders, M. A. (2016). Integrating affect and impulsivity: The role of positive and negative urgency in substance use risk. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 163, 3–12. https://doi.org/….2015.08.038.
Unplugged–Školský program univerzálnej prevencie medzi školákmi (2020). https://www.upjs.sk/…ia/unplugged
Van Breda, A. D. (2018). A critical review of resilience theory and its relevance for social work. Social Work , 54(1), 1–18. https://doi:10.15270/54-1-611
Won, K., Cook, J., Bond, T., & Greenfield, K. (2014). Are alcohol policies associated with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries? Addiction. 109(7), 1081–1090. https://doi.org/…11/add.12571
Yang, C., Zhou, Y., Cao, Q., Xia, M. & An, J. (2019). The relationship between self-control and self-efficacy among patients with substance use disorders: Resilience and self-esteem as mediators. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10, 388. https://doi.org/…t.2019.00388
Yoon, S., Lam, W. W. T., Sham, J. T. L., & Lam, T. H (2017). Underage drinking, group identity and access to alcohol: A qualitative study of Chinese youths, Health Education Research, 32(3), 269–278. https://doi.org/…3/her/cyx045
Yuen, W. S., Chan, G., Bruno, R., Clare, P., Mattick, R., Aiken, A. Boland, V., McBride, N., McCambridge, J., Slade, T., Kypri, K., Horwood, J., Hutchinson, D., Najman, J., De Torres, C., & Peacock, A. (2020). Adolescent alcohol use trajectories: Risk factors and adult outcomes. Pediatrics, 146(4), e20200440. https://doi.org/…ds.2020-0440.