Agresivní řízení a jeho projevy ve vztahu k rysům osobnosti, dalším osobnostním proměnným, situačnímu kontextu a možná preventivní opatření

Miroslava Horáková

Abstrakt

Agresivní řízení je významným fenoménem dnešní doby. Předložená studie popisuje tento jev a jeho konkrétní podoby, dále analyzuje možné příčiny a souvislosti. Ukazuje se, že agresivní řízení je složitým konstruktem, který je podmíněn multifaktoriálně a má širokou škálu projevů, od jejich mírných forem, až k řidičskému násilí. Společným prvkem agresivního řízení je způsob, kdy řidič ohrožuje nebo omezuje druhého řidiče a dochází ke vzniku riskantní situace. Řada studií vidí příčinu agresivního řízení v osobnostních proměnných (např. sensation-seeking, impulsivita, míra agresivity a iritability), přičemž poměrně dobrým prediktorem je i struktura osobnosti dle Big Five. Jiné studie považují za klíčové vnější situační faktory, jakými jsou dopravní kongesce, anonymita na silnicích a časový tlak. Přínosným je multifaktoriální přístup, který daný fenomén vidí jako výsledek působících vnitřních a vnějších faktorů. Významný vliv mají i sociální normy a celková řidičská kultura v dané zemi. V závěru studie uvádíme možná preventivní opatření pro zmírnění agresivních projevů při řízení, která by měla být komplexního charakteru a působit jak na jednotlivce (terapeutické programy pro agresivní řidiče, vzdělávání v autoškolách a preventivní kampaně), tak i na změnu vnějšího okolí (uspořádání dopravního prostředí s cílem minimalizovat stresory působící na řidiče).

https://doi.org/10.29364/epsy.435

Klíčová slova

agresivita, agresivní řízení, příčiny agresivního řízení, řidičský vztek, preventivní opatření

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